Procrastination in Blended Learning The Role of General Self-efficacy, and Active and Passive Procrastination



Abstract

Despite the growing empirical interest in academic procrastination in the distance learning, there are only limited studies on the determinants of this phenomenon in the blended learning programmes. The present study investigates the relationships between general self-efficacy, two types of procrastination (active and passive procrastination), and the behavioural tendency to postpone learning activities in a blended learning university course using Moodle platform. Results indicate that passive procrastination is strongly positively associated with procrastination in blended learning, while perceived self-efficacy and active procrastination are unrelated to the self-reported task delays during the blended learning course. In addition, the negative link between the reported number of previous completed blended-learning courses and procrastination in blended learning is observed. Practical and theoretical implications of these findings for a blended learning environment are discussed.


Keywords

procrastination; blended learning; self-efficacy; active procrastination; passive procrastination

Artino, A. R. & Stephens, J. M. (2009). Academic motivation and self-regulation: A comparative analysis of undergraduate and graduate students learning online. The Internet and Higher Education, 12(3–4), 146–151.

Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V. S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 71–81). New York: Academic Press. (Reprinted in H. Friedman [Ed.], Encyclopedia of mental health. San Diego: Academic Press, 1998).

Brandl, K. (2005). Review of Are You Ready to “Moodle”? Language Learning & Technology, 9(2), 16–23.

Broadbent, J. (2017). Comparing online and blended learner’s self-regulated learning strategies and academic performance. Internet and Higher Education, 33, 24–32.

Broadbent, J. & Poon, W. L. (2015). Self-regulated learning strategies & academic achievement in online higher education learning environments: A systematic review. The Internet and Higher Education, 27, 1–13.

Cerezo, R., Esteban, M., Sánchez-Santillán, M., & Núñez, J. C. (2017). Procrastinating behavior in computer-based learning environments to predict performance: A case study in Moodle. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1403. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01403.

Cho, M. H. & Shen, D. (2013). Self-regulation in online learning. Distance Education, 34(3), 290–301.

Choi, J. N. & Moran, S. V. (2009). Why not procrastinate? Development and validation of a new active procrastination scale. The Journal of Social Psychology, 149(2), 195–212.

Chu, A. H. C. & Choi, J. N. (2005). Rethinking procrastination: Positive effects of” active” procrastination behavior on attitudes and performance. The Journal of Social Psychology, 145(3), 245–264.

Corkin, D. M., Yu, S. L., & Lindt, S. F. (2011). Comparing active delay and procrastination from a self-regulated learning perspective. Learning and Individual Differences, 21(5), 602–606.

Dunn, K. (2014). Why wait? The influence of academic self-regulation, intrinsic motivation, and statistics anxiety on procrastination in online statistics. Innovative Higher Education, 39(1), 33–44.

Fernie, B. A., Bharucha, Z., Nikčević, A. V., Marino, C., & Spada, M. M. (2017). A Metacognitive model of procrastination. Journal of Affective Disorders, 210, 196–203.

Ferrari, J. R., O’Callaghan, J., & Newbegin, I. (2005). Prevalence of procrastination in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia: arousal and avoidance delays among adults. North American Journal of Psychology, 7(1), 1–6.

Ferrari, J. R., Parker, J. T., & Ware, C. B. (1992). Academic procrastination: Personality correlates with Myers-Briggs types, self-efficacy, and academic locus of control. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 7, 495–502.

Gafni, R. & Geri, N. (2010). Time management: Procrastination tendency in individual and collaborative tasks. Interdisciplinary Journal of Information, Knowledge, and Management, 5(1), 15–125.

Garrison, D. R. & Kanuka, H. (2004). Blended learning: Uncovering its transformative potential in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 7(2), 95–105.

Goda, Y., Yamada, M., Kato, H., Matsuda, T., Saito, Y., & Miyagawa, H. (2015). Procrastination and other learning behavioral types in e-learning and their relationship with learning outcomes. Learning and Individual Differences, 37, 72–80.

Graham, C. R. (2006). Blended learning systems: Definition, current trends, and future directions. In C. J. Bonk & C. R. Graham (Eds.), The handbook of blended learning (pp. 3–21). San Francisco, CA: Preiffer.

Haycock, L. A., McCarthy, P., & Skay, C. L. (1998). Procrastination in college students: The role of self‐efficacy and anxiety. Journal of Counseling & Development, 76(3), 317–324.

Hensley, L. C. (2014). Reconsidering active procrastination: Relations to motivation and achievement in college anatomy. Learning and Individual Differences, 36, 157–164.

Jaworska-Gruszczyńska, I. (2016). Prokrastynacja – struktura konstruktu a stosowane skale pomiarowe [Procrastination – the structure of the construct and the measuring scales]. Testy Psychologiczne w Praktyce i Badaniach, 2(1), 36–59.

Kachgal, M. M., Hansen, L. S., & Nutter, K. J. (2001). Academic procrastination prevention/intervention: Strategies and recommendations. Journal of Developmental Education, 25(1), 14–24.

Kim, K. R. & Seo, E. H. (2015). The relationship between procrastination and academic performance: A meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 82, 26–33.

Klassen, R. M., Krawchuk, L. L., & Rajani, S. (2008). Academic procrastination of undergraduates: Low self-efficacy to self-regulate predicts higher levels of procrastination. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33(4), 915–931.

Klingsieck, K. B. (2013a). Procrastination: When good things don’t come to those who wait. European Psychologist, 18, 24–34.

Klingsieck, K. B. (2013b). Procrastination in different life-domains: Is procrastination domain specific?. Current Psychology, 32(2), 175–185.

Krause, U. M., Stark, R., & Mandl, H. (2009). The effects of cooperative learning and feedback on e-learning in statistics. Learning and Instruction, 19(2), 158–170.

Luszczynska, A., Scholz, U., & Schwarzer, R. (2005). The general self-efficacy scale: multicultural validation studies. The Journal of Psychology, 139(5), 439–457.

Lynch, R., & Dembo, M. (2004). The relationship between self-regulation and online learning in a blended learning context. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 5(2), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.19173/irrodl.v5i2.189.

Markiewicz, K. & Dziewulska, P. (2018). Procrastination predictors and moderating effect of personality traits, Polskie Forum Psychologiczne, 23(3), 593–609.

Martin, L., Martínez, D. R., Revilla, O., Aguilar, M. J., Santos, O. C., & Boticario, J. G. (2008, February). Usability in e-Learning Platforms: heuristics comparison between Moodle, Sakai and dotLRN. In Sixth International Conference on Community based environments. Guatemala (pp. 12–16).

Means, B., Toyama, Y., Murphy, R., & Baki, M. (2013). The effectiveness of online and blended learning: A meta-analysis of the empirical literature. Teachers College Record, 115(3), 1–47.

Michinov, N., Brunot, S., Le Bohec, O., Juhel, J., & Delaval, M. (2011). Procrastination, participation, and performance in online learning environments. Computers & Education, 56(1), 243–252.

Rakes, G. C. & Dunn, K. E. (2010). The Impact of Online Graduate Students’ Motivation and Self-Regulation on Academic Procrastination. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 9(1), 78–93.

Reyes, N. R., Candeas, P. V., Galan, S. G., Viciana, R., Canadas, F., & Reche, P. J. (2009, June). Comparing open-source e-learning platforms from adaptivity point of view. In 2009 EAEEIE Annual Conference (pp. 1–6). IEEE.

Romano, J., Wallace, T. L., Helmick, I. J., Carey, L. M., & Adkins, L. (2005). Study procrastination, achievement, and academic motivation in web-based and blended distance learning. The Internet and Higher Education, 8(4), 299–305.

Schwarzer, R. & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Generalized self-efficacy scale. Measures in health psychology: A user’s portfolio. Causal and control beliefs, 1(1), 35–37.

Schwarzer, R., Jerusalem, M., & Juczyński, Z. (2001). Skala Uogólnionej Własnej Skuteczności – GSES [Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale – GSES]. In Z. Juczyński (Ed.), Narzędzia pomiaru w promocji zdrowia i psychologii zdrowia (pp. 93–97). Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych PTP.

Shea, P. & Bidjerano, T. (2010). Learning presence: Towards a theory of self-efficacy, self-regulation, and the development of a communities of inquiry in online and blended learning environments. Computers & Education, 55(4), 1721–1731.

Sirois, F. & Pychyl, T. (2013). Procrastination and the priority of short‐term mood regulation: Consequences for future self. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 7(2), 115–127.

Steel, P. (2007). The nature of procrastination: A meta-analytic and theoretical review of quintessential self-regulatory failure. Psychological Bulletin, 133(1), 65–94.

Steel, P. & Klingsieck, K. B. (2016). Academic procrastination: Psychological antecedents revisited. Australian Psychologist, 51(1), 36–46.

Stępień, M. & Topolewska, E. (2014). Style tożsamości w ujęciu Berzonsky’ego a prokrastynacja [Identity Styles in Bierzonsky’s Approach and Procrastination]. In E. Topolewska, E. Skimina, S. Skrzek (Eds.), Młoda psychologia (Vol. 2, pp. 145–160). Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Stowarzyszenia Filomatów.

Tuckman, B. W. (1991). The development and concurrent validity of the procrastination scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 51(2), 473–480.

Van Eerde, W. (2003). A meta-analytically derived nomological network of procrastination. Personality and Individual Differences, 35(6), 1401–1418.

Van Laer, S. & Elen, J. (2019). The effect of cues for calibration on learners’ self-regulated learning through changes in learners’ learning behaviour and outcomes. Computers & Education, 135, 30–48.

Wäschle, K., Allgaier, A., Lachner, A., Fink, S., & Nückles, M. (2014). Procrastination and selfefficacy: Tracing vicious and virtuous circles in self-regulated learning. Learning and Instruction, 29, 103–114.

Wolters, C. A. (2003). Understanding procrastination from a self-regulated learning perspective. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(1), 179–187.

Wolters, C. A. (2004). Advancing achievement goal theory: Using goal structures and goal orientations to predict students’ motivation, cognition, and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 236–250.

Yamada, M., Goda, Y., Matsuda, T., Kato, H., & Miyagawa, H. (2015). The Relationship Among Self-Regulated Learning, Procrastination, And Learning Behaviors In Blended Learning Environment. 12th International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age 2015, 67–74. Greater Dublin, Ireland. http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED562147.


Published : 2019-02-01


Sanecka, E. (2019). Procrastination in Blended Learning The Role of General Self-efficacy, and Active and Passive Procrastination. International Journal of Research in E-Learning, 5(2), 49-65. Retrieved from https://www.journals.us.edu.pl/index.php/IJREL/article/view/8430

Elżbieta Sanecka 
University of Silesia in Katowice  Poland
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3401-2782