Gender roles of Polish female emigrants and their paths of self-realization in relation to work-life balance policy



Abstract

A numerous previous reports on Polish women’s emigration provided information on their passive role in the decision making process concerning leaving Poland, obtaining employment predominantly in the sector of household services or their marriage-oriented strategy of survival in the foreign country. The current picture of women’s roles in emigration has been changed. The purpose of the presented research was to explore the paths of self-realization of Polish female emigrants regarding the gender roles realised by them in the field of the work-life balance idea. The research was conducted in psycho-sociological approach.

There were 113 adult Polish female emigrants, who had spent a period of time exceeding one year on emigration in Europe, North America, Australia and Asia admitted to the research. This project was realised on the basis of quantitative data gathered throughout online survey and supplemented by qualitative data in the shape of 15 semi-structured interviews.

The obtained results showed that the examined Polish women declare to undertake gender roles compliant with the new cultural model, and to lesser extent compliant to the traditional one. They demonstrated proactiveness in the phase of decision-making about emigration and as they attempted to combine their family life with the professional sphere in the country they have arrived in what corresponds with the WLB idea promoted in developed countries.

 

Key words:

work-life balance, gender roles, self-realization, Polish women, emigrants


Bielecka-Prus, J., & Kruk, M. (2014). Polish female migrants and their families – a study of care deficit (POLFAMIGRA). Lublin: Maria Curie-Sklodowska University. http://www.ncbr.gov.pl/gfx/ncbir/userfiles/_public/ programy_miedzynarodowe/pol_nor/meeting/gender/polfamigra.pdf (20/07/2018).

Boyd, M., & Grieco, E. (2003). Women and Migration: Incorporating Gender into International Migration Theory. Migration Policy Institute. http://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/women-and-migration-incorporating-gender-international-migration-theory (31/10/2017).

Brannon, L. (2015). Gender. Psychological Perspectives (6th edition). New York: Routledge.

Bhushan, N. (2012). Work-Family Policy in the United States. Cornell Journal of Law and Public Policy, 21(3), 676–96.

Castles, S. M., & Miller, J. (2003). The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World (3rd edition). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Cekiera, R. (2014). O pułapkach emigracyjnej lekkości : doświadczenie tymczasowości w narracjach młodych polskich emigrantów poakcesyjnych (The pitfalls of emigrational lightness: the experience of temporality in the narratives of young, Polish post-accession EU emigrants). Kraków: Nomos.

Commission of the European Communities (2006). A roadmap for equality between women and men 2006-2010. Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. COM 92 final. http://aei.pitt.edu/45627/ (20/07/2018).

Concise Statistical Yearbook of Poland 2017. Warsaw: Central Statistical Office. http://www.stat.gov.pl (30/10/2017).

Czubińska G., & Gańczak, M. (2013). Emigracja i zmiana otoczenia etniczno-kulturowego jako czynnik wpływający na modyfikowanie się postaw i zachowań seksualnych Polaków w Wielkiej Brytanii po 2004 roku – wstępne doniesienie badawcze. In: D. Praszałowicz, M. Łużniak-Piecha, J.Kulpińska (ed.), Młoda polska emigracja w UE jako przedmiot badań psychologicznych, socjologicznych i kulturowych EuroEmigranci.PL. Publikacja pokonferencyjna. http://www.euroemigranci.pl/dokumenty/pokonferencyjna/Czubinska_Ganczak.pdf (20/10/2017).

Eade, J. (2007). Class and Ethnicity: Polish Migrant Workers in London: Full Research Report. ESRC End of Award Report, RES-000-22-1294. Swindon: ESRC.

Eagly, A. H. (1997). Sex differences in social behavior: Comparing social role theory and evolutionary psychology. American Psychologist, 52(12), 1380–83.

European Commission (2017a). European Pillar of Social Rights. http://ec.europa.eu/social/publications (20/07/2018).

European Commission (2017b). Proposal for a directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on work-life balance for parents and carers and repealing Council Directive 2010/18/EU. COM 253 final. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?qid= 1494929657775 &uri=CELEX:52017PC0253 (20/07/2018).

Firlit-Fesnak, G. (2007). Rodziny polskie i polityka rodzinna; stan i kierunki przemian (Polish families and family policy; state and direction of change). In: G. Firlit-Fesnak, & M. Szylko-Skoczny (eds.), Polityka Społeczna (Social Policy) (pp. 187–200). Warszawa: PWN.

Grabowska-Lusińska, I. (2012). Migrantów ścieżki zawodowe bez granic (Migrants’ boundryless careers). Warszawa: Scholar.

Grabowska-Lusińska, I., & Okólski, M. (2008). Migracja z Polski po 1 maja 2004 r.: jej intensywność i kierunki geograficzne oraz alokacja migrantów na rynkach pracy krajów Unii Europejskiej (Migrations from Poland after May 1st 2004: its intensity, directions and allocations of migrants in the labour markets of the European Union). CMR Working Papers. Warszawa: Centre of Migration Research.

Higgins, C., Duxbury, L., & Lyons, S. (2008). Reducing Work-Life Conflict: What Works? What Doesn’t?. Health Canada. https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/environmental-workplace-health/reports-publications/ occupational-health-safety/reducing-work-life-conflict-what-works-what-doesn.html (23/07/2018).

Kawczyńska-Butrym, Z., Bielecka-Prus, J., Czapka, E., & Butrym, M. (2016). Raport końcowy projektu: Polish female migrants and their families – a study of care deficit. Lublin: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Marii Curie Skłodowskiej.

Kindler, M., & Napierała J. (2010). Wstęp (Introduction). In: M. Kindler, & J. Napierała (ed.), Migracje Kobiet Przypadek Polski (Migration of women. The Case of Poland) (pp. 7–36). Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar.

Kordasiewicz, A. (2010). Profesjonalizacja i personalizacja… – strategie Polek pracujących w sektorze usług domowych w Neapolu (Professionalism and personalization – strategies of Polish women working in the household service sector in Naples). In: M. Kindler, & J. Napierała (ed.), Migracje Kobiet Przypadek Polski (Migration of women. The Case of Poland) (pp. 37–89). Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar.

Krasnodębska, A. (2009). Znaczenie zagranicznych migracji zarobkowych w ocenie kobiet z Opolszczyzny (Meaning of International Economic Migration for Women from Opole Region). Studia Socjologiczne, 4, 251–72.

Marecek, J., & Crawford, M., & Popp, D. (2004). On the Construction of Gender. Sex and Sexualities. In: A. H. Eagly, & A. E. Beall, & R. J. Sterberg (ed.), The Psychology of Gender (pp.192–216). New York: Guilford Press.

Maroukis, T., & Iglicka, K., & Gmaj, K. (2011). Irregular migration and informal economy in Southern and Central-Eastern Europe: breaking the vicious cycle?. International Migration, 49(5), 129–56.

Maslow, A. H. (1974). The good life of self-actualizing person. In: T. M. Covin (ed.), Readings in Human Development: A Humanistic Approach (pp. 46–55). New York: MSS Information Corporation.

Miquelon, P., & Vallerand, R. J. (2006). Goal Motives, Well-Being, and Physical Health: Happiness and Self-Realization as Psychological Resources Under Challenge. Motivation and Emotion, 30, 259–72.

Napierała, J. (2010). Niewidzialne pracownice? – przypadek migrantek z Polski na rynku pracy w Oslo (Invisible workers? – the case of Polish female migrants in the labor market in Oslo). In: M. Kindler, & J. Napierała (eds.), Migracje Kobiet Przypadek Polski (Migration of women. The Case of Poland) (pp. 114–37). Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar.

Paid Parental Leave and Other Legislation Amendment (Dad and Partner Pay and Other Measures Act, 2012. No 109. http://www.comlaw.gov.au (23/07/2018).

Pavot, W., & Diener E. (2008). The Satisfaction With Life Scale and the emerging construct of life satisfaction. Journal of Positive Psychology, 3, 137–52.

Redondo Toronjo, D. (2010). Polskie pracownice przy intensywnej produkcji truskawek w hiszpańskim regionie Huelva (Polish female workers in intensive strawberry production in the Spanish region of Huelva). In: M. Kindler, & J. Napierała (eds.), Migracje Kobiet Przypadek Polski (Migration of women. The Case of Poland) (pp. 90–113). Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar.

Schmitz, P. G. (2003). Psychosocial factors of Immigration and Emigration: An Introduction. In: L. L. Adler, & U. P. Gielen (ed.), Perspective Migration: Immigration and Emigration in International Perspective (pp. 23–50). Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.

Slany, K., Ślusarczyk, M., & Krzyżowski, Ł. (2014). Wpływ współczesnych migracji Polaków na przemiany więzi społecznych, relacje w rodzinie i relacje międzygeneracyjne (The impact of contemporary migration of Poles on the changes of social bonds, family relations and intergenerational relations). Warszawa: Komitet Badań nad Migracjami PAN.

Slany, K., & Małek, A. (2005). Women’s Emigration from Poland During the Period of Political Transformation. In: K. Slany (ed.) International Migration. A Multidimensional Analysis (pp. 115–54). Kraków: Wydawnictwo Akademii Górniczo-Hutniczej.

Taylor, C. (1999). Philosophy and the human sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Thomas, J., & Harden, A. (2008). Methods for the thematic synthesis of qualitative research in systematic review. BMC Medical Research Methodology. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2288/8/45 (22/10/2017).

Twenge, J. M. (1997). Attitudes toward women, 1970–1995: A meta-analysis. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21(1), 35–51.

Wojciszke, B. (2012). Agency and communion as basic dimensions of social cognition. In: M. W. Eysenck, M. Fajkowska, & T. Maruszewski (eds.), Personality Cognition and Emotion (pp. 123-140). New York: Elliot Werner Publications.

Work + Family Roundtable (2013). Work, Care and Family Policies: Election Benchmarks 2013. www.workandfamilypolicyroundtable.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/04 /Benchmarks-2013-for-website.pdf (23/07/2018).

Work-life balance for parents and carers. http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/policies/work-life-balance/ (22/07/2018).

Zosuls, K.M., Miller, C.F., Ruble, D.N., Martin, C.L., & Fabes, R.A. (2011). Gender Development Research in Sex Roles: Historical Trends and Future Directions. Sex Roles, 64(11-12), 826–42.

Download

Published : 2018-09-28


Zalewska-Łunkiewicz, K., & Zygmunt, A. (2018). Gender roles of Polish female emigrants and their paths of self-realization in relation to work-life balance policy. Political Preferences, (20). Retrieved from https://www.journals.us.edu.pl/index.php/PP/article/view/7177

Karolina Zalewska-Łunkiewicz 
SWPS Uniwersytet Humanistycznospołeczny, Wydział Zamiejscowy w Katowicach  Poland
Agata Zygmunt  agata.zygmunt@us.edu.pl
Instytut Socjologii Uniwersytetu Śląskiego w Katowicach  Poland



All articles are published under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license (CC BY 4.0).