When “grass was greener”*: Longplay Album Covers and Learning English. A Retrospection
This paper brings together several important threads accounting for learning English as a foreign language, that is, language learning experience, material culture as an element of this experience as well as a component of the learning environment, motivation and music. Material culture has recently attracted the attention of researchers interested in foreign/second language learning and multilingualism because it provides a rich context for many multilingual practices. Longplay album covers are an excellent example of artefacts that combine the verbal with the material. Music and songs, pop songs in particular, are an important motivating factor in learning languages.
The aim of this paper is to share with the reader the author and her generation’s encounters with pop music of the 1960s, focusing on language learning experience based on the material aspects of these encounters, that is, longplay record covers. The paper, then, is the author’s personal reflection based on her own experience as well as on the multiple discussions she has had with friends and colleagues whose teenage years spanned the 1960s. Also connections between music and language learning are discussed along with suggestions of activities capitalizing on learners’ interest in music in the teaching process.
foreign language learning experience; material culture; longplay album covers; pop music; motivation
Adkins, S. (1997). Connecting the powers of music to the learning of languages. The Journal of the Imagination in Language Teaching and Learning, IV, 40–48. https://archive.org/details/ERIC_ED420199/page/n43/mode/2up
Anvari, S. H., Trainor, L. J., Woodwide, J., & Levy, B. A. (2002). Relations among musical skills, phonological processing and early reading ability in preschool children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 83(2), 111–130.
Aronin, L. (2012). Material culture of multilingualism and affectivity. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching (Special issue Affect in second language learning and teaching), 2(2), 179–191.
Berwald, J. (1987) Teaching foreign languages with realia and other authentic materials. ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics.
Brewer, C., & Campbell, D. G. (1991). Rhythms of learning. Zephyr Press.
Bideleux, R., & Jeffries, I. (2007). A history of Eastern Europe. Crisis and change (2nd edition). Routledge.
Campbell, D. (2003). The Mozart effect for parents: Unlocking the potential of your child. Penguin.
Caulfield, K. (3 January 2018). U.S. vinyl album sales hit Nielsen Music-Era Record High in 2017. Billboard. https://www.billboard.com/articles/columns/chart-beat/8085951/us-vinylalbum-sales-nielsen-music-record-high-2017
Chen-Hafteck, L. (1997). Music and language development in early childhood: Integrating past research in the two domains. Early Child Development and Care, 130(1), 85–97.
Csizér, K., & Kálmán, C. (2019). A study of retrospective and concurrent foreign language learning experiences: A comparative interview study in Hungary. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 9(1), 225–246.
Davies, H. (1996). The Beatles. W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.
Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.
Dörnyei, Z. (2009). The psychology of second language acquisition. Oxford University Press.
Fowkes, B. (2000). Eastern Europe 1945–1969: From Stalinism to stagnation. Routledge.
Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of Multiple Intelligences. Basic Books.
Gołębiowski, M. (2004). Dzieje kultury Stanów Zjednoczonych [A history of American culture]. Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
Hall, M. (2014). The emergence of rock and roll: Music and the rise of American youth culture. Routledge.
Hasted, N. (2012, August 11). The rapacity of the record revival—Revival of interest in vinyl records. The Independent. https://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/music/features/the-rapacity-of-the-record-revival-8026756.html
Hayes, M. (2002). 20th century music. 1960s: The age of rock. Gareth Stevens Publishing.
Inglis, I. (2001). ‘Nothing you can see that isn’t shown’: The album covers of the Beatles. Popular Music, 20(1), 83–97.
Inglis, I. (2008). Cover story: Magic, myth and music. In J. Olivier (Ed.), Sgt. Pepper and the Beatles. It was forty years ago today (pp. 91–102). Ashgate Publishing Ltd.
Kreyer, R., & Mukherjee, J. (2009). The style of pop song lyrics: A corpus-linguistic pilot study. Anglia – Zeitschrift für englische Philologie, 125(1), 31e58. http://doi.org/10.1515/ANGL.2007.31
Lahr, J. (1981, December 2). The Beatles Considered. The New Republic, 19–23.
Lake, R. (2002–2003). Enhancing acquisition through music. The Journal of the Imagination in Language Learning and Teaching 7, 98–107.
Laufer, B. (1998). The development of passive and active vocabulary in a second language: Same or different? Applied Linguistics, 19(2), 255–271.
Laufer, B. (2001). Quantitative evaluation of vocabulary: How it can be done and what it is good for. In C. Elder, A. Brown, E. Grove, K. Hill, N. Iwashita, T. Lumley, et al. (Eds.), Experimenting with uncertainty: Essays in honour of Alan Davies (pp. 241–250). Cambridge University Press.
Levitin, D. J., & Menon, V. (2003). Musical structure is processed in “language” areas of the brain: A possible role for Brodmann area 47 in temporal coherence. NeuroImage, 20, 2142–2152.
Lipoński, W. (2004). Dzieje kultury brytyjskiej [A history of British culture]. Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
Lynskey, D. (2013). Beatlemania: ‘The screamers’ and other tales of fandom. The Guardian, Sunday 29 September 2013. http://www.theguardian.com/music/2013/sep/29/beatlemaniascreamers-fandom-teenagers-hysteria
Marshall, H. (1981). Folk architecture in Little Dixie: A regional culture in Missouri. University of Missouri Press.
Palmer, C., & Kelly, M. (1992). Linguistic prosody and musical meter in song. Journal of Memory and Language, 31(4), 525–541.
Patel, A. (2003). Language, music, syntax and the brain. Nature Neuroscience, 6(7), 674–681.
Patterson, J. (1998). The United States since 1945. In M. Howard and Wm. R. Louis (Eds.), The Oxford history of the twentieth century (pp. 164–175). Oxford University Press.
Piasecka, L. (2012). EFL students’ use of the Internet. What is communicated? Presentation at TAL Conference, Opole, November 12–14, 2012.
Poirier, R. (1969). Learning from the Beatles. In J. Eisen (Ed.), The age of rock: Sounds of the American cultural revolution (pp. 160–79). Random House.
Richards, J. C., & Rodgers, T. S. (2001). Approaches and methods in language teaching (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Setia, R., Rahim, R., Nair, G., Mohd Adam, A., Husin, N., Sabapathy, E., & … Seman, N. (2012). English songs as means of aiding students’ proficiency development. Asian Social Science, 8(7), 270–274. https://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/ass/article/view/17633
Shayakhmetova, L., Shayakhmetova, L., Ashrapova, A., & Zhuravleva, Y. (2017). Using songs in developing intercultural competence. Journal of History Culture and Art Research, 6(4), 639–646. https://doi.org/10.7596/taksad.v6i4.1157
Sleve, R., & Miyake, A. (2006). Individual differences in second-language proficiency—Does musical ability matter? Psychological Science, 17(8), 675–681.
Slon, S. (2014). Beatles ’64. Editor’s Letter. Saturday Evening Post. January/February 2014, 10.
Smith, P. (2010). Just kids. Harper Collins Publishers.
Speh, A. J., & S. D. Ahramjian. (2009). Teaching without a common language: Synchronicities between the pedagogies of music and second language acquisition. Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braşov, 2(51), 53–58.
Stansell, J. W. (2005). The use of music for learning languages: A review of the literature. http://writingthetrueself.com/pdfs/Jon_Stansell_The_Use_of_Music_for_Learning_Languages.pdf
Szewczyk, K., & Szabłowska, M. (2013). Ludzkie gadanie. Życie, rock-and-roll i inne nałogi [People’s chatting. Life, rock-and-roll, and other addictions]. Znak.
Szyszka, M. (2015). Multimedia in learning English as a foreign language as preferred by German, Spanish and Polish teenagers. In L. Piasecka, M. Adams-Tukiendorf, & P. Wilk (Eds.), New media and perennial problems in foreign language learning and teaching (pp. 3–19). Springer.
Tegge, F. (2017). The lexical coverage of popular songs in English language teaching. System, 67, 87–98.
Thorgerson, S. (1989). Classic album covers of the 60s. Paper Tiger.
Werner, V. (2019). Lyrics and language awareness. Nordic Journal of Modern Language Methodology, 7(1), 4–28.
Yapp, N. (2005). Decades of the 20th century. The sixties. Könemann/Getty Images. www.billboard.com. Accessed January 22, 2021.
http://www.britannica.com. Accessed January 22, 2021.
http://www.gigwise.com/news/45430/designer-peter-saville-the-album-cover-is-dead. Accessed January 22, 2021.
http://manhattman.com/2012/it-was-45-years-ago-today. Accessed January 22, 2021.
http://www.pink-floyd-lyrics.com/html/high-hopes-lyrics-division-bell.html. Accessed January 22, 2021.
http://www.thepeoplehistory.com. Accessed January 22, 2021.
https://www.thebeatles.com/revolver. Accessed January 22, 2021.
https://www.thebeatles.com/sgt-peppers-lonely-hearts-club-band-0. Accessed January 22, 2021.
https://www.udiscovermusic.com/stories/whos-who-on-the-beatles-sgt-peppers-lonely-heartsclub-band-album-cover/. Accessed January 22, 2021.
The Copyright Holders of the submitted texts are the Authors. The Reader is granted the rights to use the material available in the TAPSLA websites and pdf documents under the provisions of the Creative Commons 4.0 International License: Attribution - Share Alike (CC BY-SA 4.0). The user is free to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, and to remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially.
The University of Silesia Press provides immediate open access to journal’s content under the Creative Commons BY-SA 4.0 license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/). Authors who publish with this journal retain all copyrights and agree to the terms of the above-mentioned CC BY-SA 4.0 license.
2. Author’s Warranties
The author warrants that the article is original, written by stated author/s, has not been published before, contains no unlawful statements, does not infringe the rights of others, is subject to copyright that is vested exclusively in the author and free of any third party rights, and that any necessary written permissions to quote from other sources have been obtained by the author/s.
If the article contains illustrative material (drawings, photos, graphs, maps), the author declares that the said works are of his authorship, they do not infringe the rights of the third party (including personal rights, i.a. the authorization to reproduce physical likeness) and the author holds exclusive proprietary copyrights. The author publishes the above works as part of the article under the licence "Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International".
ATTENTION! When the legal situation of the illustrative material has not been determined and the necessary consent has not been granted by the proprietary copyrights holders, the submitted material will not be accepted for editorial process. At the same time the author takes full responsibility for providing false data (this also regards covering the costs incurred by the University of Silesia Press and financial claims of the third party).
3. User Rights
Under the CC BY-SA 4.0 license, the users are free to share (copy, distribute and transmit the contribution) and adapt (remix, transform, and build upon the material) the article for any purpose, provided they attribute the contribution in the manner specified by the author or licensor.
If the article was prepared jointly with other authors, the signatory of this form warrants that he/she has been authorized by all co-authors to sign this agreement on their behalf, and agrees to inform his/her co-authors of the terms of this agreement.
I hereby declare that in the event of withdrawal of the text from the publishing process or submitting it to another publisher without agreement from the editorial office, I agree to cover all costs incurred by the University of Silesia in connection with my application.