The generalization of Gaussians and Leonardo's octonions


In order to explore the Leonardo sequence, the process of complexification of this sequence is carried out in this work. With this, the Gaussian and octonion numbers of the Leonardo sequence are presented. Also, the recurrence, generating function, Binet’s formula, and matrix form of Leonardo’s Gaussian and octonion numbers are defined. The development of the Gaussian numbers is performed from the insertion of the imaginary component i in the one-dimensional recurrence of the sequence. Regarding the octonions, the terms of the Leonardo sequence are presented in eight dimensions. Furthermore, the generalizations and inherent properties of Leonardo’s Gaussians and octonions are presented.


matrix form; Binet’s formula; Gaussian; octonions; Leonardo sequence

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Published : 2023-02-27

VieiraR. P. M., MangueiraM. C. dos S., AlvesF. R. V., & CatarinoP. M. M. C. (2023). The generalization of Gaussians and Leonardo’s octonions. Annales Mathematicae Silesianae, 37(1), 117-137. Retrieved from

Renata Passos Machado Vieira
Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza-CE  Brazil
Milena Carolina dos Santos Mangueira 
Federal Institute of Ceará, Fortaleza-CE  Brazil
Francisco Régis Vieira Alves 
Federal Institute of Ceará, Fortaleza-CE  Brazil
Paula Maria Machado Cruz Catarino 
University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Vila Real  Portugal

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