Investigating the Roles of the Four Sources of Self-Efficacy Beliefs in an EFL Listening Context
Research in the academic context has revealed the positive roles of self-efficacy in teaching and learning, showing that a thorough understanding of self-efficacy is essential. In this study, the relationships between the four principal sources and the formation of self-efficacy belief proposed by Bandura (1997) are examined in order to further this understanding. Based on this, several empirical studies have attempted to explore these relationships in various fields, but the relevant research appears to have produced insufficient empirical data in the field of language learning to support the theory. Therefore, this study aims to investigate how these sources affect basic self-efficacy (BSSE) and advanced skill self-efficacy (ASSE) classified according to the difficulty of listening tasks in English. As many as 107 Korean university students participated in the study and mediation analysis was employed to examine the relationships. The results show that all four sources act as mediators of BSSE, and all but physiological and emotional states serve as mediators of ASSE. The findings support Bandura’s hypothesis and the pedagogical implications are discussed.
four sources of self-efficacy; listening; self-efficacy; university students
Bai, B., Chao, G. C., & Wang, C. (2019). The relationship between social support, self-efficacy, and English language learning achievement in Hong Kong. TESOL Quarterly, 53(1), 208–221.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Prentice-Hall.
Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V. S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 71–81). Academic Press Reprinted from Encyclopedia of mental health by H. Friedman, Ed., 1998, San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. Freeman.
Bandura, A. (2006a). Adolescent development from an agentic perspective. In F. Pajares, & T. Urdan (Eds.), Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents (pp. 1–43). Information Age Publishing.
Bandura, A. (2006b). Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales. In F. Pajares, & T. Urdan (Eds.), Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents (pp. 307–337). Information Age Publishing.
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173–1182.
Bong, M., & Skaalvik, E. M. (2003). Academic self-concept and self-efficacy: How different are they really? Educational Psychology Review, 15, 1–40.
Britner, S. L., & Pajares, F. (2006). Sources of science self-efficacy beliefs of middle school students. Journal for Research in Science Teaching, 43, 485–499.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Academic Press.
Graham, S. (2006). Listening comprehension: The learners’ perspective. System, 34, 165–182.
Graham, S. (2011). Self-efficacy and academic listening. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 10(2), 113–117.
Hampton, N. Z., & Mason, E. (2003). Learning disabilities, gender, sources of self-efficacy, self-efficacy beliefs, and academic achievement in high school students. Journal of School Psychology, 41, 101–112.
Kenny, D. A. (2018). Mediation. Retrieved on October 22, 2020. http://davidakenny.net/cm/mediate.htm#IE)
Kim, H. I. (2020). The effects of experience abroad, English self-efficacy, and proficiency on the L2 motivational selves: A study of Korean EFL university students. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 14(3), 259–272.
Kim, H. I. (2022). The impact of individual interest and proficiency on self-efficacy beliefs in foreign language listening. Theory and Practice of Second Language Acquisition, 8(1), 53–70.
Kim, H. I., & Cha, K. A. (2017). Effects of experience abroad and language proficiency on self-efficacy beliefs in language learning. Psychological Reports, 120(4), 670–694.
Kim, D., Wang, C., Ahn, H. S., & Bong, M. (2015). English language learners’ self-efficacy profiles and relationship with self-regulated learning strategies. Learning and Individual Differences, 38, 136–142.
Lam, Y. Y., & Chan, J. C. Y. (2017). Effects of verbal persuasion from parents and teachers on Chinese students’ self-efficacy: An exploratory study. Cambridge Journal of Education, 47, 155–165.
Lent, R. W., Lopez, F. G., & Bieschke, K. J. (1991). Mathematics self-efficacy: Sources and relation to science-based career choice. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38, 424–430.
Matsui, T., Matsui, K., & Ohnishi, R. (1990). Mechanisms underlying math self-efficacy learning of college students. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 37, 223–238.
Mills, N., Pajares, F., & Herron, C. (2006). A reevaluation of the role of anxiety: Self-efficacy, anxiety, and their relation to reading and listening proficiency. Foreign Language Annals, 39, 276–295.
Pajares, F. (2009). Motivational role of self-efficacy beliefs in self-regulated learning. In D. H. Schunk & B. J. Zimmerman (Eds.), Motivation and self-regulated learning: Theory, research, and applications (pp. 111–139). Routledge.
Pajares, F., & Urdan, T. (Eds.). (2006). Adolescence and education: Vol. 5. Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents. Information Age.
Prat-Sala, M., & Redford, P. (2010). The interplay between motivation, self-efficacy, and approaches to studying. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(2), 283–305.
Shehzad., M. W., Lashari, T. A., Lashari, S. A., & Hasan, M. K. (2020). The interplay of self-efficacy sources and reading self-efficacy beliefs in metacognitive reading strategies. International Journal of Instruction, 12(4), 523–544.
Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equation models. In S. Leinhardt (Ed.), Sociological Methodology (pp. 290–312). American Sociological Association.
Stevens, T., Olivarez, A. Jr., Lan, W. Y., & Tallent-Runnels, M. K. (2004). Role of mathematics self-efficacy and motivation in mathematics performance across ethnicity. The Journal of Educational Research, 97(4), 208–221.
Todaka, Y. (2017). Self-efficacy of English listening skills in Japanese college learners: Quantitative and qualitative analyses. European Journal of English Language Teaching, 2, 93–119.
Torres, K. M., & Turner, J. E., (2016). Students’ foreign language anxiety and self-efficacy beliefs across different levels of university foreign language coursework. Journal of Spanish Language Teaching, 3(1), 57–73.
Usher, E. L., & Pajares, F. (2008). Sources of self-efficacy in school: Critical review of the literature and future directions. Review of Educational Research, 78(4), 751–796.
Vuong, M., Brown-Welty, S., & Tracz, S. (2010). The effects of self-efficacy on academic success of first-generation college sophomore students. Journal of College Student Development, 51(1), 50–64.
Wang, C., & Bai, B. (2017). Validating the instruments to measure ESL/EFL learners’ selfefficacy beliefs and self-regulated learning strategies. TESOL Quarterly, 51(4), 931–947.
Wang, C., Kim, D.-H., Bai, R., & Hu, J. (2014). Psychometric properties of a self-efficacy scale for English language learners in China. System, 44(1), 24–33.
Wang, C., & Pape, S. J. (2007). A probe into three Chinese boys’ self-efficacy beliefs learning English as a second language. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 21(4), 364–377.
Zhang, X., & Ardasheva, Y. (2019). Sources of college EFL learners’ self-efficacy in the English public speaking domain. English for Specific Purposes, 53, 47–59
Zuo, H., & Wang, C. (2016). Understanding sources of self-efficacy of Chinese students learning English in an American institution. Multicultural Learning and Teaching, 11(1), 83–112.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
The Copyright Holders of the submitted texts are the Authors. The Reader is granted the rights to use the material available in the TAPSLA websites and pdf documents under the provisions of the Creative Commons 4.0 International License: Attribution - Share Alike (CC BY-SA 4.0). The user is free to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, and to remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially.
The University of Silesia Press provides immediate open access to journal’s content under the Creative Commons BY-SA 4.0 license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/). Authors who publish with this journal retain all copyrights and agree to the terms of the above-mentioned CC BY-SA 4.0 license.
2. Author’s Warranties
The author warrants that the article is original, written by stated author/s, has not been published before, contains no unlawful statements, does not infringe the rights of others, is subject to copyright that is vested exclusively in the author and free of any third party rights, and that any necessary written permissions to quote from other sources have been obtained by the author/s.
If the article contains illustrative material (drawings, photos, graphs, maps), the author declares that the said works are of his authorship, they do not infringe the rights of the third party (including personal rights, i.a. the authorization to reproduce physical likeness) and the author holds exclusive proprietary copyrights. The author publishes the above works as part of the article under the licence "Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International".
ATTENTION! When the legal situation of the illustrative material has not been determined and the necessary consent has not been granted by the proprietary copyrights holders, the submitted material will not be accepted for editorial process. At the same time the author takes full responsibility for providing false data (this also regards covering the costs incurred by the University of Silesia Press and financial claims of the third party).
3. User Rights
Under the CC BY-SA 4.0 license, the users are free to share (copy, distribute and transmit the contribution) and adapt (remix, transform, and build upon the material) the article for any purpose, provided they attribute the contribution in the manner specified by the author or licensor.
If the article was prepared jointly with other authors, the signatory of this form warrants that he/she has been authorized by all co-authors to sign this agreement on their behalf, and agrees to inform his/her co-authors of the terms of this agreement.
I hereby declare that in the event of withdrawal of the text from the publishing process or submitting it to another publisher without agreement from the editorial office, I agree to cover all costs incurred by the University of Silesia in connection with my application.